WHAT ARE ANTIOXIDANTS?

In our body, the processes of cell destruction are constantly going on, and one of them is oxidation. The culprits of oxidation – free radicals – have free electrons, therefore, for their stability, they strive to “tear” a suitable part for themselves from the structures of the body. The damaged atoms, in turn, acquire the properties of free radicals and destroy the next atoms – a kind of chain of aggressive processes is formed.
Of course, the human body is a very complex and intelligent system, in which recovery processes are provided, therefore, under normal conditions, recovery compensates for destruction. However, with an excessive influx of free radicals or with a weakness of protective functions, damaged structures become more and more, and this leads to diseases and premature aging.
Antioxidants are substances that block or inhibit oxidation as a manifestation of the destructive action of free radicals. Some drugs, biologically active additives, food components have antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are also used for preserving food, but in our article, we will only touch upon those antioxidants that can be used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes.

The most common antioxidants are:
• vitamins: ascorbic acid, ß-carotene, vitamin E (tocopherol);
• polyphenols – flavonoids and flavin (found in vegetables);
• lycopene (natural source – tomatoes);
• anthocyanins (found in red berries);
• tannin (tea, cocoa, coffee).
The effect of antioxidants can be associated both with the protection against already existing free radicals and with the inhibition of their formation. For the effectiveness of defense mechanisms, the presence of antioxidants in the body with different modes of action is very important: in this case, they not only complement each other but also enhance their antioxidant effect. By the way, do not expect that this effect will manifest itself as rejuvenation: antioxidants cannot do this. Their task is to prevent premature wear and tear of body tissues and to promote their recovery.

WHY DO MAN NEED ANTIOXIDANTS?

The role of antioxidants in our lives cannot be overstated. They help limit the aggression of free radicals and repair the damage they cause. According to some reports, their effectiveness is 99%.
This is what antioxidants do.
• Resist free radicals, interrupting the destructive oxidation process.
• Strengthen the body’s antioxidant system.
• Prevents the decomposition of food by microbes and bacteria, so they can be used as preservatives.
• Soften the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation.
• Promote the restoration of metabolism.

VARIETIES OF ANTIOXIDANTS

Antioxidants can be of natural origin and enter the body from food (primarily vegetables and fruits), as well as from plant extracts.
They can also be obtained by chemical synthesis. For example:
• most vitamins;
• some enzymes (superoxide dismutase).
Chemical origin is not a disadvantage. On the contrary, this allows you to create the most active form of the substance, to achieve maximum concentration.
The most active fighters against free radicals are:
• vitamins A, C, and E, some researchers classify them as B vitamins;
• unsaturated fatty acids Omega-3 and -6;
• superoxide dismutase;
• resveratrol;
• coenzyme Q10;
• extracts of green tea, pine bark, ginkgo Biloba;
• milk serum.

ANTIOXIDANTS IN FOOD

Artificial sources of antioxidants – multivitamins and dietary supplements. Of course, with the right approach to taking these funds, they become a good help to our body, but it is always better when the antioxidant is a natural substance. What foods are rich in antioxidants?
• Fresh berries and fruits and in the form of juices, purees, smoothies. The highest concentration of antioxidants is found in sea buckthorn, grapes, blueberries, mountain ash (including black chokeberry), cranberries, currants.
• Prunes and other dried fruits.
• Nuts.
• Beans.
• Some fresh vegetables: radish, carrot, garlic, spinach, eggplant, turnip, radish, cabbage.
• Spices and herbs: parsley, celery, cinnamon, turmeric, oregano, cloves.
• Artichoke.
• Red wine.
• Tea, especially green tea.
• Cocoa.

WHAT ARE MITOCHONDRIAL ANTIOXIDANTS?

Mitochondria have a crucial role in aging, increasing the “production” of free radicals over time.
And the mitochondrion has such a useful feature for pharmacists – only its membrane has a noticeable (against the general cellular background) charge. That allows you to deliver antioxidants directly to the mitochondria – to neutralize the free radicals it produces. Moreover, some antioxidants freely pass through the cell membrane.
Well yes. In theory, this will make it possible in the coming years to make significant progress on the path of combating the aging of the body.

WHY DO I NEED TO REMOVE SLAGS AND TOXINS, CHARGE ANTIOXIDANTS?

Our body does not produce toxins, so what goes out through the urinary tract and the rectum has less metallurgical names. There are very specific measures for both constipation and chronic / acute renal failure – most likely what is usually called “detoxification” is something completely different.
Toxins – this has nothing to do with eating canned food, exhale. DDT is a classic example of a real accumulating toxin, and so it was already banned. And, I suspect, real toxins of such a series of horseradish diet and dietary supplements will remove …
As for antioxidants, there was an assumption (logical, but theoretical) that by capturing free radicals of molecules and preventing lipid peroxidation – which we have in all our cell walls – they will protect cells and prevent atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels (and further heart attacks, strokes ), and aging in general … None of this was confirmed by subsequent studies, alas. True, alas. On the contrary, there were suspicions that, against the background of a massive intake of antioxidants, the systems that destroy cancer cells in the body may malfunction, and this is completely non-intact …

THE APPLICATION OF ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE

The child’s body is sensitive to a lack of vitamins. Vitamins prevent the development of acute infectious diseases, ensure normal digestion and blood formation. Deficiency of vitamins negatively affects the growth of the child, metabolism, neuropsychic development, leads to impaired immunity, a decrease in the body’s adaptive abilities to the effects of unfavorable external factors. All this contributes to the development of various diseases already in childhood, which tend to become chronic in adulthood. Population studies conducted by the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences indicate insufficient intake of vitamins (A, C, E, group B), microelements (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium) by a significant part of the population of the Russian Federation. Schoolchildren receive only 50% of the required amount of vitamin C, 31% – B1, 36% – B2, 36% – B6, 21% – E, 17% – vitamin A and 29% – beta-carotene. Most vitamins are not synthesized (or synthesized in insufficient quantities) in the human body and enter it with food, and therefore are essential nutritional factors. It is impossible to provide a growing child’s body with vitamins only through nutrition.

Deficiency of vitamins with antioxidant properties, ensuring the resistance of the human body to infections, contributes to a decrease in immunity. In the pathogenesis of a large number of diseases, the violation of the stability of biological membranes is important. The main process leading to their destruction is free radical lipid peroxidation (LP). Uncontrolled LP is especially dangerous for children, whose antioxidant defense mechanisms are imperfect. The weakening of antioxidant defense and uncontrolled enhancement of LP processes is one of the important links in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, diseases of the lungs, kidneys, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, etc. The most important antioxidant vitamins are ascorbic acid, vitamins E, and A (beta-carotene).
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is one of the most important antioxidants in Pedi. Ascorbic acid binds and inactivates reactive oxygen species (O2 *, * OH), organic peroxides, protects low-density lipoproteins and other lipids from oxidative damage by capturing free radicals before they reach the cell membrane. Vitamin C can restore the oxidized form of vitamin E and plays a leading role in the antioxidant protection of the brain.
Sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits, berries, tomatoes, cantaloupe, cauliflower, and white cabbage, green vegetables, black currants. The need for vitamin C increases with diarrhea, decreased gastric secretory function, thyrotoxicosis. It is known that during long-term storage of fruits and vegetables, during cooking, vitamin C is significantly destroyed, which can lead to a violation of the supply of it to the child’s body.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) is the most important antioxidant, it has a membrane-stabilizing function. Tocopherol is included mainly in that part of the lipid layer where phospholipids with a high content of double bonds are concentrated. By protecting the membranes, tocopherol helps to maintain the activity of membrane-bound enzymes. Vitamin E hypovitaminosis is accompanied by an increase in the concentration of free radicals in the liver, heart, muscles, and other organs. With a deficiency of tocopherol, accelerated development of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, impaired humoral immunity, the development of cardiomyopathy, the appearance of foci of necrosis in the liver, and impaired neuronal structure can be observed. Vitamin E, along with other antioxidant vitamins, plays the role of a natural immunoregulator: it stimulates the production of antibodies by suppressing the function of T-suppressors, normalizes the state of cellular and humoral immunity, and increases the phagocytic activity of neutrophils.
Vitamin A and its provitamins (beta-carotene and other carotenoids). In the human body, vitamin A is found in three forms (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid), depending on the oxidation state of the carbon atom. It enters the body in the form of plant food carotenoids or the form of free retinol and its esters.
Once in the intestine, free retinol is absorbed in the mucous membrane. In the blood, retinol is transported by a retinol-binding protein. Further, the transporting protein interacts with the cytoplasmic membrane of the cells, after which free retinol penetrates the cell, and the “traveling protein” returns to the extracellular space. Inside the cell, all three forms of vitamin A bind to proteins. Retinoic acid in combination with a specific cytosolic protein stimulates the processes of cell growth and proliferation. The antioxidant function of vitamin A is expressed in the protection of any biological membranes from damage by reactive oxygen species.

The best-known carotenoid is beta-carotene. Its source can be fish oil, liver, caviar, milk, butter, sour cream, cottage cheese, cheese, egg yolk, as well as vegetable products.

ANTIOXIDANTS – PROTECTION AGAINST DISEASES?

Recently, scientists of different specialties have concluded that the basis of many pathological processes in the body, leading to various diseases and ultimately to aging, is the same phenomenon. This is damage to cell walls and other structures inside the cell by free oxygen radicals. Depending on which structures are damaged – hereditary substance (DNA) or the outer membrane – either cancer develops or other disorders are observed. As the body ages, the activity of free radicals increases, and the risk of various age-related diseases increases. Now that the cause of these negative changes is known, many medical centers are developing substances that can counteract the effects of free radicals.

OXYGEN ART

We know from childhood that oxygen is essential for life. A planet whose atmosphere does not contain this gas can certainly be considered uninhabited. Oxygenated air is healthier and easier to breathe.
However, oxygen can also be a destroyer. A living creature, placed in an atmosphere of pure oxygen, dies in a matter of seconds. Oxygen oxidizes metals – rust appears. A fresh apple, cut in half, becomes covered with a dark bloom – this is also the effect of oxygen.
Oxidation processes, in which oxygen is the main actor, constantly take place in our body. This is a necessary component of normal metabolism. As well as the opposite processes of recovery. The essence of oxidation is that a molecule loses one electron, donating it during a chemical reaction to another molecule. In this case, it becomes unstable due to the lack of one electron: the “unpaired” electron tends to interact. When, on the contrary, the electrons are paired, the structure becomes stable and the recovery process takes place.
In the cells of the body, there is always a certain amount of free radicals – molecules with a free electron that have an increased ability to interact with other molecules. They are necessary for the normal processes of respiration, metabolism, and the destruction of foreign bacteria. However, when there are a lot of them, the scale “oxidation-reduction” outweighs in the direction of oxidation. As a result, free radicals begin to interact not with the molecules with which it is necessary for the normal functioning of the cell, but with everyone in a row. For example, with lipids, cell membrane fats. In this case, lipid peroxidation occurs. To illustrate this process more clearly, remember what happens when the oil goes rancid. The oil changes its color and properties. Cell membranes also change, they become more “rigid”, poorly cope with their main function: to selectively let some ions and molecules into the cell and retain others. As a result, the cells begin to work worse. If these are the cells that make up the blood vessels, atherosclerosis can develop, if the optic cells of the retina are cataracts. When the neurons of the brain are damaged, memory, and attention weaken. And if free radicals “get” to the hereditary substance of the cell, DNA molecules, then the consequences are even more serious. Since DNA controls all processes in the body, the consequence of its damage can be a defect in the production of hormones, and a violation of digestion processes, and a loss of control over the growth and division of cells, which leads to their cancerous degeneration.

INTERNAL PROTECTION

Where do free radicals come from? In addition to the normal “reproduction” of free radicals during the life of the body, we “add” them to our diet when we eat canned meat, low-quality butter or ham, use some medicines, alcoholic beverages, vegetables that have been treated with pesticides. They enter the lungs along with the air saturated with exhaust gases, tobacco smoke, and the smallest particles of asbestos dust. X-rays and infrared rays contribute to their enhanced formation in the body. And, finally, they are formed in cells in unnecessary excess during emotional shocks, trauma, and heavy physical exertion.
However, the body has considerable capacity to fight free radicals. Firstly, the damage caused by radicals to cellular structures is quickly eliminated. For example, a special system tracks any DNA damage and repairs the hereditary substance. And the so-called antioxidant defense system becomes a “trap” for free radicals. It curbs the excessive formation of free radicals and directs them along the pathways of cellular metabolism where they are beneficial.
For example, bacteria that make up the normal intestinal microflora decompose biochemicals that can give rise to free radicals. There are also special enzymes that destroy substances that carry free radicals. For example, hydrogen peroxide is the most powerful “supplier” of free radicals. An enzyme called glutathione peroxidase causes peroxide radicals to react with each other to form water and oxygen.
Many of these enzymes require substances called coenzymes to function. The prefix “ko” means that only in cooperation, in cooperation with these substances, the enzyme can perform
your task. These substances include vitamins and minerals. These are selenium, copper, manganese, zinc, vitamins B, C, A, E, and many others. Some of them are worth getting to know better. After all, our health and well-being depend on them.

FANTASTIC FOUR

Recently, American doctors have concluded that vitamins A, C, E, and microelement selenium are especially important from the many antioxidants contained in food and with the help of which it is possible to strengthen the body’s defenses against aging and disease.
The role of vitamin A for the normal functioning of the body has been known for a long time. Its lack in the diet leads to frequent colds, blurred vision, dry skin, and an increased risk of tumor processes. But only in recent years, it became clear that the substance from which vitamin A is formed in the body, beta-carotene, plays a huge role in the antioxidant protection of cells. Beta-carotene can neutralize reactive oxygen species and thereby protect immune cells from destruction.
Vitamin C is no less important in the defense system. Everyone knows its healing effect on scurvy and colds, but few people know that ascorbic acid also protects us from cancer. Adequate amounts of vitamin C in the stomach prevents the nitrites that enter it in food from being converted into nitrosamines, which are one of the causes of stomach cancer. Also, vitamin C prevents the destruction of enzymes by free radicals, protects the cells of the retina from oxidation, inhibits the development of cataracts, and serves as protection for many other cells.
Vitamin E, present in the body in sufficient quantities, “protects” the fats that are part of the cell membranes from oxidation. If you add a few drops of this powerful antioxidant to a bottle of vegetable oil, the oil will not go rancid for a long time. Similarly, vitamin E “preserves” cell membranes. It stops the chain reaction of oxidation, provoked by free radicals, and thus prolongs the life of cells. The trace mineral selenium helps vitamin E do this job. It destroys substances containing free radicals in the liquid content of the cell.

CONDITIONS OF SUCCESS

But all these substances necessary for our body “work in full force” not always, but only under certain conditions. The slightest shift in chemical equilibrium, lack of an insignificant amount of a trace element – and failures in antioxidant protection occur. For example, vitamin A is fully absorbed by the body only when a person’s liver and kidneys are working normally, the production of thyroid hormones is not disturbed, and a sufficient amount of protein and fat enters the body. Besides, vitamin A needs the trace element zinc to function properly. Lack of it begins to quickly affect sexual function, menstrual cycle, sexuality, as well as the work of many other organs and can lead to a variety of disorders in the body, similar to those that develop with aging.
For example, diabetes mellitus is a disease that itself is a model of accelerated aging. At the same time, first of all, the vessels suffer, there is rapid deposition of atherosclerotic plaques. And the vessels nourish the brain, retina, heart, and legs. Without control over blood sugar levels, diabetic retinopathy, leading to a sharp deterioration in vision, and disease such as diabetic foot can occur. Diabetics are five times more likely to have heart attacks. Polyneuropathy often develops – nerve damage.
This happens primarily because the patient’s body has a reduced antioxidant defense. Similar processes begin as a result of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alz Gamers.
A decrease in antioxidants can lead to the formation of tumor cells, especially in the elderly. In a healthy young person, and actively working antioxidant defense system corrects cell changes leading to tumor transformation, and the disease does not develop. But with age, this protection weakens and negative changes accumulate. Hormonal disorders can accelerate this process. After all, all this is a single chain of factors acting in the body at different levels. It is not for nothing that the famous St. Petersburg oncologist-endo -criminologist V.M.Dilman identified four factors of the aging system: a decrease in sexual function, which is directly related to insufficient hormone production, weight gain, hypertension, and the growth of tumor formations.

PROBLEMS OF YOUNG

Unfortunately, the living conditions of a modern person and the ecological situation are such that a decrease in the number of antioxidants can be in the body of very young people. Endocrinologists are increasingly noticing abnormalities in the normal development of girls at the age when the female reproductive system is being formed and the girl turns into a girl. In girls with insufficient production of sex hormones, the growth zones of tubular bones do not close and they continue to increase in height, while their peers no longer grow. Such girls usually have very long arms and legs and infantilism are noticeable in all appearance. Often they are very thin, they have disrupted the normal deposition of fatty tissue.
It is known that for normal sexual development, body weight must reach at least 48 kilograms. If the weight is less, the menstrual cycle is disrupted. This should be remembered by those girls who are fond of fasting diets.
Lack of sex hormones can lead to underdevelopment of the uterus and other ailments, such as cystic degeneration of the ovaries. This happens because the correct two-phase cycle for the production of sex hormones has not been formed: follicles in the ovaries are formed, but they do not break at a certain moment. It is then in the ovaries that cysts of undeveloped follicles accumulate.
If the necessary treatment is not carried out in time, such violations sometimes lead to infertility. A young woman may have difficulties in the sexual sphere. Often this is accompanied by inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive system, which lead to obstruction of the fallopian tubes.
If it is possible to become pregnant with these deviations, then the threat of miscarriage is real. The hormonal background in such cases is insufficient for the development of the child, and premature birth and miscarriages occur. This is another group of disorders that, if not directly, then indirectly, is associated with a violation of the normal antioxidant defense in the body.

STRATEGY AND TACTICS

What can be done to enhance the body’s antioxidant defenses? The answer is obvious: you need to eat foods containing these substances in sufficient quantities. These include the most common vegetables, berries, fruits. For example, blueberries. This berry is high in vitamins A and C, as well as flavonoids – substances with strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, regular consumption of blueberries helps to strengthen small blood vessels – capillaries, including retinal capillaries. This is probably why blueberry jam was a must-have for British pilots during World War II. It was believed that it improves vision in the dark and allows you to reach the target during night bombing. Besides, blueberries normalize blood sugar levels, reduce the secretion of uric acid in gout, strengthen collagen – a connective tissue substance that gives elasticity to ligaments, skin, and tendons. It prevents the formation of blood clots, preventing thrombosis, heart attacks, and strokes renew the intestinal lining.
Another food available that is high in antioxidants is common garlic. It reduces high-density lipoproteins in the blood, which form atherosclerotic plaques, lowers blood pressure, kills bacteria, and removes lead from the body. According to the latest scientific data, garlic protects not only from coronary artery disease but also from the formation of tumor cells.
However, not all antioxidant-rich foods are readily available. Not so long ago, scientists from the University of Limburg in Germany proved that an active antioxidant complex is contained in the leaves of the ginkgo Biloba plant. This complex protects the fats contained in the membranes of nerve cells from being destroyed by free radicals. Therefore, ginkgo extract began to be used for patients with memory impairments, for severe headaches, for patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Some antioxidants that the body needs, such as zinc and selenium, are difficult to get enough from food. Oysters contain a lot of zinc, but this delicacy is seldom found in our diet. Much less of it is found in wheat germs, blueberries, pumpkin seeds, and oatmeal.
And to provide your body with selenium, you need to use overseas products more often – coconut and pistachios. There is this useful trace element also in lard and garlic. The rest of the products contain little of it.
Selenium enters food only from the soil, and our country belongs to the regions where soils are depleted in the content of this trace element. Therefore, milk, meat, vegetables, and fruits of domestic production contain less than the norm.
Russia is not alone in this situation. That is why for many years the development of drugs has been underway that could provide the body with selenium and zinc in sufficient quantities. For a long time, zinc was used simply in the form of “zinc talker”, zinc oxide. But in this form, this trace element is poorly absorbed by the body. Also, for many people, especially those with liver problems, these drugs can cause nausea and vomiting.
Today, medicine has other medicines. Thanks to modern “packaging” – the placement of medicinal substances in small gelatin capsules, liposomes – the substances needed by the body go directly to the cells that need them. The gelatinous shell of the capsules is designed in such a way that it is similar to the fatty layer of the cell membrane and merges with it, delivering the drug into the cell. Therefore, the unpleasant sensations associated with the assimilation of the same zinc do not arise in the digestive tract. Thus, the body is provided not with microdoses of useful substances, but with a sufficiently large amount of them, which can radically affect the metabolism. Capsules, “charged” with antioxidants, not only help to improve the condition of a patient suffering from, for example, cataracts, but also contribute to the healing and rejuvenation of the whole organism as a whole. This was noticed at the Institute of Eye Diseases. Helmholtz. Professor V. Neroev and his colleagues, using antioxidant preparations with zinc and selenium to improve blood microcirculation in small retinal capillaries, found that patients’ blood pressure normalized at the same time, increased resistance to infections, and other health problems became less relevant. And this is not surprising – after all, antioxidants are included in the body’s defense against destruction at all levels. They allow, if not to reverse the time on the biological clock, then at least to slow down the inexorable course of the hands. And this is already a lot.

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN PREGNANCY?

At present, in the pathogenesis of many complications of pregnancy and the neonatal period, the leading role is assigned to oxidative (oxidative) stress – a general pathological reaction manifested by a disturbance in the body’s balance between prooxidants and components of the antioxidant defense system. Pregnancy is accompanied by an additional need for antioxidants to combat oxidative stress, while the action of free radicals and other oxidative stress molecules can exceed the antioxidant buffering capacity of the mother and the growing fetus, which is accompanied by cell damage and apoptosis. This mechanism leads to such complications of pregnancy as premature birth, premature rupture of membranes, preeclampsia, placental insufficiency, fetal growth retardation syndrome, congenital malformations of the fetus, iron deficiency anemia. Oxidative stress is one of the etiopathogenetic factors in the development of several complications of the neonatal period (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia), since newborns, especially premature babies, do not have sufficiently developed mechanisms of antioxidant action against free radicals.

Vitamin E plays the role of a fat-soluble antioxidant that protects cells in the body from damage from harmful free radicals (i.e. reactive oxygen species) and may perform other physiological functions. Vitamin C also has antioxidant properties and is involved in collagen synthesis and iron and folate metabolism.
As antioxidants, vitamins E and C work synergistically to prevent oxidative stress, which occurs as a result of an imbalance between the number of free radicals in the body and the ability of antioxidants to counteract them. Therefore, a joint intake of vitamins E and C are often prescribed.
It has been established that there is a relationship between oxidative stress during pregnancy and the development of preeclampsia, as well as the existence of an increased risk of fetal growth retardation and premature rupture of the membranes. Also, it has been suggested that oxidative stress also plays a role in the development of many disorders that preterm babies often suffer from, for example, chronic lung diseases, necrotizing enterocolitis, etc. However, the data available to date indicate that Vitamins E and C have little or no benefit in these maternal and infant outcomes and may, conversely, increase the risk of premature rupture of the membranes.

ANTIOXIDANTS IN BODYBUILDING

It is believed that many byproducts are generated during and after exercise that can damage muscles and other organs. Free radicals such as oxygen and nitrogenous molecules attack and damage cell membranes. Several recent studies have shown that antioxidants can reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress as well as accelerate workout recovery.
Vitamins and minerals receive special attention in bodybuilding, which acts as antioxidants and regulators of metabolism, helping not only protect muscles but also increase their mass.

Muscle growth

In 2019, Norwegian scientists evaluated the effect of taking vitamin C (500 mg) and vitamin E (117.5 mg) before and after training for 12 weeks on muscle growth and strength in the elderly (60-81 years). Strength training took place 3 times a week, for all muscle groups. On rest days, supplements were taken at the same dose in the morning and evening. As a result, it turned out that the subjects who took these antioxidants showed a lower increase in muscle mass, but there were no differences in the increase in strength indicators. Scientists hypothesize that exercise-induced oxidative stress may significantly contribute to muscle hypertrophy.
However, in an earlier study from 2008, another group of Canadian scientists found that vitamin C (1000 mg/day) and vitamin E (600 mg/day) caused more significant gains in lean muscle mass in older people than in subjects. who performed only training.
12 studies have shown a complete lack of effect on the physiological parameters of the athlete’s body and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Thus, the authors believe that antioxidant supplementation does not affect post-exercise muscle recovery and athletic performance.

TOP 5 ANTIOXIDANTS YOU SHOULD TAKE

  • Vitamin E and benefits
    Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant compound. Although it exists in 8 chemical forms, only one form meets the requirements for human consumption: alpha (or α) tocopherol.
    What are the benefits of vitamin E? Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that stops the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) produced during fat oxidation. Scientists are investigating whether vitamin E can help prevent or delay-free radical-related chronic diseases by limiting free-radical production and possibly other mechanisms.
    The body creates ROS when it converts food into energy. Antioxidants like vitamin E can protect cells from any damage caused by ROS.
  • Vitamin A and benefits
    Vitamin A is the name of a set of fat-soluble retinoids containing retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters. Its antioxidant properties are well known. This vitamin is responsible for:
    • immunity
    • vision
    • reproductive system
    • cell growth and interaction
    • heart health
    • lung health
    • kidney health
    • maintenance of other organs
    What is the role of vitamin A? It is an especially essential component for vision because it is an essential part of rhodopsin, a protein that absorbs light at receptors in the retina and maintains the conjunctival and corneal membranes.

There are two types of vitamin A: preformed and provitamin A.
• Preformed – Found in meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products.
• Provitamin A – found in fruits, vegetables and plant foods (the most common type is beta-carotene)
You can find it in the following products:
• Beef liver and other organ meats (but these foods are also high in cholesterol, so use in moderation).
• Certain types of fish such as salmon.
• Green leafy vegetables and other green, orange, and yellow vegetables such as broccoli, carrots, and pumpkin.
• Fruits, especially melons, apricots and mangoes.
• Milk-based products, which are among the main sources of vitamin A.
• Fried breakfast cereals.

  • 3- Resveratrol and benefits
    Resveratrol is a polyphenic bioflavonoid antioxidant produced by many plants and found in foods and liquids. It is naturally produced by plants when they are attacked or injured by pathogens (bacteria or fungi). Its ability to combat stressors such as radiation and disease makes resveratrol a very good antioxidant supplement and even against cancer.

Scientists have found that resveratrol can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease as well as other diseases.
The benefits of resveratrol were discovered after scientists discovered that yeast, other bacteria, insects, and animals that consume resveratrol have a longer lifespan.
Various studies have confirmed its amazing anti-aging properties, as evidenced by studies conducted on fruit flies, mice, fish, and hookworms that lived longer than control groups that did not receive this phytonutrient.
Dosage instructions will vary depending on your age and your current health condition. Usually, people take 250 to 500 mg every day. It is important to note that this amount is usually less than the amounts used in studies, but high doses may not be safe.

  • 4- Lycopene and benefits
    Lycopene is a bright red carotene and carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables. However, it is not found in cherries or strawberries. Lycopene is approved as a food coloring in the United States. This is why spaghetti sauce will stain your kitchen utensils, often lycopene is responsible. This gives the vegetables their bright red color.
    Studies show that taking lycopene may reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease. It also helps protect the skin from sun damage.
    Lycopene-rich foods:
    The recommended dose has not yet been officially established. However, most clinical studies have focused on the amount of lycopene-containing foods that the participants consumed, rather than the consumed amounts of lycopene itself.

Eating a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables each day may be a healthier way to prevent chronic disease than taking extra lycopene.
Eat 5 servings of brightly colored fruits and vegetables daily to benefit from the benefits of lycopene. Benefits include:
• Cancer prevention
• Control of papillomavirus
• Promote eye health
• Reduction of neurological pain
• Improving brain health
• Lowering blood pressure
• Promote heart health
• Relief of bone tension
Lycopene is found in foods and beverages such as:
• tomatoes or canned tomato sauce
• watermelon
• grapefruit
• apricots
• carrot
• red cabbage
• mango
• papaya

  • 5- Carbon 60 and health
    Fullerenes 60 based on C60 already have many applications in various industries. Research on Carbon 60 has provided compelling data on the possible use of C60 in several areas:
    • Biomedicine
    • Chemical research
    • Nanotechnology
    • Health and medicine
    • Electronic development
    Click here to read more about Fullerene’s latest medical research synthesis published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry. This study delves into the following properties:
    • Antiviral activity (Anti-HIV-1)
    • Photodynamic therapy
    • Antioxidant properties of C60
    • Anti-cancer properties
    • Immunological properties
    • Biological applications of endohedral metallofullerenes
    Research shows that C60 has antioxidant properties and may even increase lifespan. In a new study on laboratory rats, researchers found that C60 doubled the lifespan of rats. Within 30 hours, the gastrointestinal tract absorbed dissolved C60 fullerenes and excreted them without causing harm. Other scientists point out that although the compound is quickly cleared from the body, lasting changes in organs and cells, such as amplification of DNA, should have occurred in only 96 hours. Finally, the lifespan of the rats was doubled.

ANTIOXIDANT MESOTHERAPY

Despite the commercial hype around antioxidants in medicine, the question of whether or not to use them in mesotherapy is no longer asked. It is necessary to appoint. But how? The use of drugs with antioxidant properties in mesotherapy corresponds to the basic principles of antioxidant therapy, namely, preference is given to ready-made cocktails in which the functional synergy of various types of antioxidants is manifested. Studies have shown that antioxidant therapy should be approached in a differentiated manner. To achieve good results, different tactics are required in the treatment of structures damaged due to sunburn, poorly healing wounds, inflammatory elements, etc. and to increase the resistance of the skin to factors that activate free radical oxidation. The use of antioxidants in high concentrations can be regarded as “first aid” for “tired”, aging, inflamed skin. In these cases, it is recommended to conduct short intensive courses or single sessions. For preventive purposes, it is better to use natural antioxidants or preparations containing small doses of antioxidants.
You should not make antioxidant cocktails on your own, because when combined with some ingredients, antioxidants lose their properties or trigger negative reactions. Also, it is known that most of the compounds of this group are characterized by a two-phase effect – when a certain threshold value is exceeded, the antioxidant effect is replaced by the prooxidant one. In addition to individual effects, antioxidants can act synergistically and protect each other from oxidative damage.
• Vitamin C restores the antioxidant activity of vitamin E by regenerating it to its active form after its interaction with free radicals.
• Beta-carotene supports vitamin E by trapping reactive oxygen and breaking free radical chain reactions. Vitamin E can protect beta-carotene from oxidation.
• Selenium is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which protects cell membranes from fat peroxidation. Works in synergy with vitamin E to reduce cell damage.
• Bioflavonoids restore vitamins C and E.
It is no coincidence that a complex antioxidant therapy has a great effect, during which water and fat-soluble antioxidants are combined with a synergistic effect. In some cases, simultaneously with the performance of aesthetic procedures, it is necessary to take oral preparations or natural antioxidants (fresh juices, fruits, vegetables).
Indications for antioxidant therapy:
• Signs of age-related skin changes.
• Signs of photoaging.
• “Smoker’s skin”.
• Acne, post-acne.
• Rosacea.
• Pigmentation disorders.
• Various types of alopecia.
• Rehabilitation after invasive procedures (peelings, laser exposure, plastic surgery), prevention of complications.

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