Proteins are high – molecular organic substances, consisting of alpha-amino acids linked in a chain by a peptide bond. In living organisms, the amino acid composition of proteins is determined by the genetic code; in most cases, 20 standard amino acids are used in synthesis. Their many combinations create protein molecules with a wide variety of properties. In addition, the amino acid residues in the protein are often post-translationally modified., which can occur both before the protein begins to perform its function, and during its “work” in the cell. Often in living organisms, several molecules of different proteins form complex complexes, for example, a photosynthetic complex.

The functions of proteins in the cells of living organisms are more diverse than the functions of other biopolymers – polysaccharides and DNA. For example, enzyme proteins catalyze the course of biochemical reactions and play an important role in metabolism. Some proteins have a structural or mechanical function to form a cytoskeleton that maintains the shape of cells. Also, proteins play a key role in the signaling systems of cells, in the immune response, and in the cell cycle.

Proteins are an important part of the nutrition of animals and humans (main sources: meat, poultry, fish, milk, nuts, legumes, grains; to a lesser extent: vegetables, fruits, berries, and mushrooms) since all essential amino acids and some must come with protein foods. In the process of digestion, enzymes break down consumed proteins into amino acids, which are used for the biosynthesis of the body’s own proteins or are further degraded for energy.


According to the general type of structure, proteins can be divided into three groups:

  1. Fibrillar proteins – form polymers, their structure is usually highly regular and is supported mainly by interactions between different chains. They form microfilaments, microtubules, fibrils, and support the structure of cells and tissues. Fibrillar proteins include keratin and collagen.
  2. Globular proteins are water-soluble, the general shape of the molecule is more or less spherical.
  3. Membrane proteins – have domains that cross the cell membrane, but parts of them protrude from the membrane into the intercellular environment and the cytoplasm of the cell. Membrane proteins perform the function of receptors, that is, they carry out the signal transmission, and also provide transmembrane transport of various substances. Proteins-transporters are specific, each of them passes through the membrane only certain molecules or a certain type of signal.


In addition to peptide chains, many proteins also include non-amino acid groups, and according to this criterion, proteins are divided into two large groups – simple and complex proteins (proteins). Simple proteins consist only of polypeptide chains, complex proteins also contain non-amino acid, or prosthetic, groups. Depending on the chemical nature of prosthetic groups, the following classes are distinguished among complex proteins:
Glycoproteins containing covalently linked carbohydrate residues as a prosthetic group; glycoproteins containing mucopolysaccharide residues belong to the proteoglycan subclass. Hydroxyl groups of serine or threonine are usually involved in the formation of a bond with carbohydrate residues. Most of the extracellular proteins, in particular, immunoglobulins, are glycoproteins. In proteoglycans, the carbohydrate part makes up ~ 95% of the total mass of the protein molecule; they are the main component of the extracellular matrix ;
Lipoproteins containing non-covalently bound lipids as a prosthetic part. Lipoproteins formed by apolipoprotein proteins and lipids that bind to them are used for the transport of lipids in the blood;
Metalloproteids containing non-heme coordinated metal ions. Among the metalloproteins some proteins perform deposition and transport functions (for example, iron-containing ferritin and transferrin ) and enzymes (for example, zinc-containing carbonic anhydrase and various superoxide dismutases containing copper, manganese, iron and other metal ions in active centers);
Nucleoproteins containing non-covalently bound DNA or RNA. Nucleoproteins include chromatin, of which chromosomes are composed;
• Phosphoproteins containing covalently linked phosphoric acid residues as a prosthetic group. The formation of an ester bond with phosphate involves the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine, and tyrosine. Phosphoprotein, in particular, is milk casein;
Chromoproteins containing colored prosthetic groups of various chemical natures. These include many proteins with a metal-containing porphyrin prosthetic group that performs various functions: hemoproteins (proteins containing heme as a prosthetic group, for example, hemoglobin and cytochromes ), chlorophylls, flavoproteins with a flavin group.


Just like other biological macromolecules (polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids), proteins are essential components of all living organisms and play an important role in the life of the cell. Proteins carry out metabolic processes. They are part of intracellular structures – organelles and cytoskeleton, are secreted into the extracellular space, where they can act as a signal transmitted between cells, participate in food hydrolysis and the formation of intercellular substance.
The classification of proteins according to their functions is rather arbitrary, since one and the same protein can perform several functions. A well-studied example of such multifunctionality is lysyl-tRNA synthetase, an enzyme from the class of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that not only attaches a lysine residue to tRNA but also regulates the transcription of several genes. Proteins perform many functions due to their enzymatic activity. So, the enzymes are the motor protein myosin, regulatory proteins of protein kinases, the transport protein sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase.


In bodybuilding, exercise and diet are not considered separately. The mechanism of muscle recovery and growth cannot be started without high-quality protein nutrition. Therefore, every bodybuilder’s menu includes meat, poultry, fish, cottage cheese. If it is not possible to obtain the protein norm from conventional foods, the athlete purchases sports supplements and, in particular, proteins. We suggest taking a closer look at a popular type of protein powder – whey isolate.

What is whey isolate

Protein, as a sports supplement, is a pure protein. In turn, protein consists of smaller components – amino acids. The higher the quality of the protein composition, the more amino acids the athlete will receive, and the better the processes of recovery and muscle growth will be. What happens when whey isolate is ingested? First, the additive is broken down into amino acids by the action of enzymes and acids. After that, amino acids are absorbed into the bloodstream and carried throughout the body, to those places where building “bricks” are needed.


The isolate is based on whey-derived milk proteins. In addition, manufacturers add sweeteners, flavors, wheat germ, enzymes to their products (for better absorption). As a rule, these components are made from natural raw materials. Note that additional ingredients may not always be useful. For example, sweeteners increase the calorie content of a cocktail, which will interfere with drying. In addition, some ingredients are allergens (eg wheat for celiac disease).

Production Technology

The main task in the manufacture of an isolate is to cleanse whey from parasites, fats, lactose, cholesterol. For this, the following operations are carried out: 

Pasteurization. The whey is heated to a high temperature and kept for a certain amount of time. Thanks to this, the milk mass gets rid of germs and bacteria; 

Ultrafiltration. At this stage, special filter membranes are used. As a result, some of the ballast substances are removed from the product; 

Diafiltration. Another method for cleaning milk mass. At this stage, almost all unnecessary components are removed, and the output is 90% whey concentrate; 

Spray drying. Under the pressure of hot air, the wet concentrate is passed through special filters. As a result, moisture evaporates and 80-95% isolate powder is formed.

Differences between isolate and other whey proteins

We have already said that, depending on the degree of purification, three types of protein can be obtained from whey. Let’s look at the differences between these products:

Concentrate. The approximate protein content is 65-80%. Due to poor filtration of whey, the concentrate contains excess fats and is absorbed by the body for a rather long time (from 1 to 2 hours). The advantages of this type of protein include low cost; 

Isolate. The approximate protein content is 80-95%. During production, whey is subjected to double (sometimes triple) filtration. Thanks to this, the finished product is quickly absorbed (35-40 minutes) and practically does not contain ballast substances; 

Hydrolyzate. The approximate protein content is 90-98%. In this case, the whey goes through several stages of purification and is processed by enzymes. Thanks to this, the hydrolyzate is free from impurities and has a high absorption rate (25-35 minutes). The disadvantage is the cost of such a protein. 

Muscle recovery and growth

Muscle fibers do not grow during exercise but on rest days. In this case, the bodybuilder must receive the necessary trace elements with nutrition. The additional use of whey protein will allow the body to quickly repair muscle damaged during training and thereby increase their volume.

Keeping in shape

The processes of destruction and creation of new muscle cells are ongoing in the body. Therefore, bodybuilders consume a large amount of protein to maintain the gained muscle mass. Using whey protein will help you stay in shape without having to eat a pound of chicken breasts daily.

Normalization of hormonal levels

For the muscles to increase in volume, the bodybuilder must regularly synthesize growth hormones (somatotropin, testosterone). Strength training helps you build them. But it’s equally important to include quality whey protein in your diet. From it, the body will directly build the hormones themselves.

Burning subcutaneous fat

Eating protein supplements helps to saturate the body without using heavy carbohydrate foods. As a result, the athlete reduces the total daily calorie intake, which contributes to the launch of weight loss processes. Besides, the body spends a lot of energy on the breakdown of protein into amino acids, which also helps to get rid of hated fat deposits in problem areas.


Protein varies depending on the raw materials used to make it. According to this classification, the following types are distinguished: 

  • milk (average absorption, usually within 2 hours after ingestion);
  • whey (recommended to use immediately after training);
  • casein (distinguish between calcium casein and micellar); 
  • soy (plant-based, absorbed within a few hours);
  • meat (based on animal protein, it has a specific taste); 
  • egg (has an ideal amino acid composition, is made on the basis of egg whites); 
  • complex (consists of protein supplements with varying degrees of assimilation).


To obtain pure protein, fats, carbohydrates, ballast substances are removed from the feedstock. Depending on the filtration method used in production, one or another type of protein is obtained:

Concentrate. Has a low filtration rate. Because of this, the amount of protein in the finished powder does not exceed 80%. Such a product is assimilated within one to two hours. The advantage of the concentrate is its low cost;

Isolate. At least double-cleaned. Due to this, the powder has a high nutritional value – the amount of protein is from 80 to 95%. The product is absorbed rather quickly (30-40 minutes). Has an affordable price;

Hydrolyzate. It goes through several stages of purification and is additionally processed with enzymes to break down amino acid chains. Thanks to this technology, the product practically does not contain impurities and is quickly absorbed (25-35 minutes). The amount of protein in the powder can be up to 98%. The disadvantage of such an additive is its high cost.

The concentrate is intended for those who cannot purchase a more expensive type of protein (for example, students). For experienced athletes who want to get the purest product with a high absorption rate, we recommend either an isolate or a hydrolyzate.


There are three forms of protein. Each has its pros and cons. Let’s consider them in a little more detail:

  • The most common is the powder. This product is sold in plastic cans and bags. Plus – high nutritional value. Minus – the need to stir;
  • Liquid protein is considered less popular. Usually sold in small bottles. Advantage – easily soluble in water, disadvantage – high cost;
  • The third form is protein bars. Benefits – Saturates well, can be used as a complete snack. A disadvantage is a large number of carbohydrates.

We recommend powder isolates for beginners. These supplements have a high protein content and are relatively inexpensive. Liquid protein is typically used by professional athletes when they need to fuel their muscles during long strength training sessions. Bars are suitable for everyone and are used when there is no opportunity to eat well.


 As a substitute, it is permissible to use whey concentrates or hydrolysates. Also, other types of proteins (beef, egg, multicomponent), amino acid complexes, and protein bars can serve as a source of protein. But we recommend that the main part of protein compounds be obtained from natural products (red meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cottage cheese).

If you want to build muscle, you don’t have to buy beautiful cans of protein. You can get the amount of protein from your regular diet. We offer a selection of products with the highest protein content. The calculation is presented for 100 g


In an assimilable dose, it is suitable for consumption at any age. If we talk about harmfulness, then it is much more dangerous when fast food and confectionery are present in large quantities in the diet.
Many athletes buy protein in bulk, as it needs to be consumed for a long time (which once again confirms its safety). Protein is a muscle-building material. Accordingly, the main purpose of taking it is muscle building. Also, protein has other positive effects on the body:

  1. helps to recover faster after grueling workouts;
  2. reduces hunger;
  3. keeps the body in good shape;
  4. normalizes metabolic processes;
  5. improves endurance;
  6. increases power indicators;
  7. cleans the blood;
  8. strengthens the immune system;
  9. helps to restore hormonal levels (in women);
  10. improves brain function.


A gainer is a protein-carbohydrate product. The composition contains 20-30% protein, everything else is fast carbohydrates with a high glycemic index. The supplement is intended for lean athletes who find it difficult to gain weight. If your goal is to grow lean muscle – take pure protein. A gainer will not work for you, as it will increase the total body weight due to the accumulation of body fat.

 Amino acids (supplement) are proteins that are broken down into smaller constituents for production. Chemically, there is no difference between AA and protein. Through exercise, amino acids are absorbed faster. Complexes are used when you need to quickly replenish the body’s protein supply and destroy muscle (catabolism).


If a person who does not engage in physical activity has a balanced diet in proteins, fats, carbohydrates, then there is no need for additional intake of sports supplements. If there is a constant shortage of protein compounds, then a protein powder may be useful. At the same time, the consumption rate of the supplement should be slightly lower than that of strength athletes. The recommended norm for ordinary people is about 1 g of protein per 1 kg of body weight. If you drink large amounts of protein without exercising, some of the supplements you take will likely be wasted.


The main benefits of protein intake for men are the restoration of damaged fibers after training, as well as the construction of new cells. Besides, the supplement has a positive effect on the hormonal system. As a result, the production of testosterone increases – the hormone responsible for sex drive, muscle growth, character, mental acuity, and motivation. We also note that a sufficient amount of protein in the diet maintains the nervous system in a healthy state, thereby helping a man to overcome stressful moments. Protein powder is also recommended for women suffering from a lack of protein compounds. Firstly, when doing fitness, this supplement will help to keep the shape. Secondly, protein contributes to the maintenance of healthy hair, nails, and skin. Thirdly, taking the powder saturates the body and reduces the total calorie content of the menu, which has a positive effect on weight loss. Fourth, regular consumption of protein shakes stimulates a high metabolism, which is also beneficial for reducing body fat.


The optimal formula for athletes of both sexes is 2.5 g of protein per 1 kg of body weight. However, most of the protein should come with regular foods. The rest should be taken from the protein powder. Let’s look at an example:

Initial data: an athlete weighing 80 kg, protein products in the daily diet – 10 chicken eggs, 200 g of chicken fillet. Objective: Calculate the dosage of protein powder intake. 


The weight of an athlete is 80 kg, which means that he needs to eat 200 g of protein per day (80×2.5 = 200); 

We calculate the amount of protein consumed from natural products: 10 eggs = about 50 g of protein, 200 g of fillet = about 50 g of protein; 

Since the athlete receives half of the norm from natural products, it means that he must get another 100 g of protein from the protein; 

A single serving of powder is usually 30-35 g. Therefore, the required daily amount of protein will be equal to three servings. You can add a fourth meal of a protein shake to 100% to meet your body’s needs.

Note that we took into account beef, egg, and whey proteins. The amount of protein in these supplements is close to 100%. If you take a powder from plant materials, for example, from soybeans, then the numbers will be different. Soy protein contains an average of 20 grams of protein per serving. So, for the example presented, the recommended number of servings is five to six days.


Typically, protein powder does not have any negative effects on the body. But with regular, systematic excess of the consumption rates indicated by the manufacturer, problems with the kidneys and liver may occur. The solution, in this case, will be a significant reduction in the dosage of the additive. Side effects of protein include digestive upset in people with lactose intolerance. In addition, whey formulas can cause allergic reactions on the skin or respiratory tract. Therefore, allergy sufferers are best off focusing on beef or egg proteins.


Ordinary people who are not involved in strength training, but have a lack of protein in the diet, should take 2 standard servings of whey protein (30-35 g each) in the morning and evening between snacks.

For athletes who regularly engage in physical activity, we recommend that you adhere to the following supplement regimen:

In the morning after waking up . Type: whey or multicomponent. The goal is to slow down catabolic processes (muscle breakdown) that began at night. Note that you should additionally eat carbohydrates (for example, oatmeal) to fill the body with energy;

Before training 30-40 minutes . Type: whey, beef or egg. The goal is to provide the body with protein to maintain muscle during exercise. In this case, it is also necessary to additionally consume carbohydrates;

It makes no sense to drink protein powder during training , because it takes a long time to be absorbed. Better to take a serving of amino acids or a BCAA complex;

Immediately after training . Type: whey, egg or beef. The goal is to stop the processes of catabolism, to provide muscles with nutrition for growth and recovery;

Before bed . Type: casein or multicomponent. The goals are to block the processes of catabolism at night, to provide the muscles with slowly absorbed nutrition.

On rest and recovery days , take the supplement between snacks.

A few words should be said about the liquid in which the protein is mixed.

  1. The easiest way is to dissolve the powder in clean boiled water. The advantage of such a cocktail is the absence of additional calories, the disadvantage is not the most pleasant taste.
  2. The second cooking option is with milk. The advantage of such a drink is great taste, the minus is additional calories. Therefore, a protein with milk is not recommended for athletes who are strictly “dried” before the competition.
  3. The third way is to stir the protein powder in fruit juice. The advantage is a pleasant taste, the disadvantage is the high content of fast carbohydrates. If the athlete is not drying, it is permissible to drink protein and juice after training to close the “carbohydrate window”.


  • Proteins are involved in the beta-oxidation (degradation) of fatty acids. They are essential for burning fat.
  • The assimilation of proteins is a very energy-consuming process, compared to fats and carbohydrates (energy is consumed more by 35-40%, which is compensated for by the active consumption of fat deposits in the body).
  • Effective weight loss involves strict adherence to your diet. Nowadays, there are thousands of different variations of diets, but all of them are united by the basic principles – this is either a complete rejection of a certain list of products, or a sharp decrease in their quantity, or replacement with low-calorie counterparts. As a result, there is a deficiency of protein in the body. It is worth noting here that the bulk of people eat insufficient amounts of protein, even without taking into account diets (remember that the daily rate of protein is 2 g per kilogram of body weight), so it is not surprising that weight loss critically affects this factor. Protein deficiency negatively affects our appearance – the skin is dry, flabby, less elastic, wrinkles appear prematurely, hair is thin, falls out, hair growth is slowed down. In women, menstrual irregularities are possible. Replenish the lack of protein in the body,using protein blends, it will allow you to lose weight correctly and remain healthy and beautiful!
  • The use of protein mixtures while losing weight prevents the body from breaking down contractile proteins, and therefore the loss of the muscle mass you have gained.

When and how to take protein for weight loss?

Try to adhere to the following rules:

1. Reduce your daily carbohydrate intake to 150 grams.

2. Try to eat slow carbohydrates, not fast ones.

3. More physical activity, do not miss workouts.

4. Drink protein instead of snacks. Don’t substitute protein shakes for staple meals like breakfast, lunch, or dinner, as they won’t last long and you’ll soon feel like eating again.

5. Protein has the best effect on weight loss if you drink it three times a day: as a second breakfast, 2 hours before training, and one hour after the end of your training.

6. Do not consume too much protein at a time, remember – no more than 30 g per cocktail, the body simply cannot absorb more. The optimal amount of protein is 25 g, i.e. one measuring spoon.


Proteases (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin) are produced to break down protein in the gastrointestinal tract. If there are no diseases of the digestive system, enzymes are reduced, then proteins are absorbed equally well. There is a difference in the speed of assimilation. Whey and egg proteins contain a complete protein composition and are absorbed in about the same time. Whey proteins include concentrates, isolates and hydrolysates. This is not suitable for those with milk intolerances. The isolate contains less lactose. The isolate is absorbed equally quickly with the concentrate. All this is aggravated by the hydrolyzate, since this is a partially digested protein, it takes less time for its fermentation. It has no digestive problems, it has no meaning. Casein protein, usually consumed in the evening, is broken down the longest. This protein is absorbed as well as whey protein.


Protein and casein are a source of protein for the body, obtained by manufacturers from food. “Protein” is the general name for a category, and “casein” is the variety in that category.
There are also whey, egg, soy, and other types of proteins. The difference between them lies in the raw materials from which they are made.

Whey protein is derived from whey.

Casein is a complex protein made directly from cow’s milk. From Latin “casein” is translated as “cheese”. Other types of dairy products also contain this protein.

Casein is one of the types of protein, such as whey, casein, egg, soy … If the question is: “What is the difference between whey and casein?” – the rate of absorption. Whey is quickly absorbed and is great as a substitute for breakfast, snacks between meals, before and after training. Casein, on the other hand, in the stomach turns into a clot-gel and breaks down for long hours, gradually feeding our body, which is why it is most advisable to take it before bedtime (1-2 hours), so it will work effectively, preventing the catabolic effect of muscles.

Unlike other types of protein, casein is a slower-digesting protein. For this reason, it is advised to take it at night so that the muscles receive valuable amino acids throughout sleep. This prevents nighttime catabolism (the breakdown of muscle fibers).

There is also micellar casein, which takes about 9-12 hours to digest longer than normal casein. It is also recommended to consume it before bed.

The main difference between casein and protein is in the rate of absorption. Casein is used when you need to quickly build muscle mass, and protein is used to maintain, repair, and protect during a protein fast.


  • Keep it clean and wash the utensils in which you prepare your protein shake immediately. If you do not do this, but leave, for example, a shaker for the morning, then it will not be easy to approach the sink – the decomposed protein exudes not pleasant miasms at all. Alternatively, you can add a little detergent and fill the dishes with water.
  • Do not prepare drinks in advance – they will go bad. As a result, you will get a terrible smell and a nasty taste. But even worse, the protein will be much harder to digest, which can lead to indigestion. It is optimal to make them immediately before use and keep the ingredients in different containers.
  • When choosing a product, stop on the one that contains the fewest items. There are often more impurities in a mixture with sweeteners or flavors than the protein itself.
  • Always clean up immediately if you accidentally spill powder. After a few hours, your bag or kitchen surface will not smell like roses. Wash items immediately and wipe the furniture with detergent or disinfectant.
  • Never exceed the dosage indicated on the package. In this case, more does not mean better.
  • The cocktail shaker seems to be built to last, but it’s best to change it after two to three months. An unpleasant smell may be the first bell. But if your drinks have a sour taste, then the container should definitely go to the trash.


Unlike regular chocolate bars, protein bars with almost the same calorie content have a healthier and higher quality composition.
The main ingredient is protein. In high protein bars, the amount of protein can reach 60-75%. The high bar contains about 40% protein. These are carbohydrates.

There are also:

  • Low-calorie. L-carnitine, a fat-burning compound, is often included.
  • Low carb. Practically sugar-free, used for weight loss and drying.
  • Energy, or high carbohydrate. Due to their high-calorie content, they are useful for accelerating muscle gain. Effective when consumed 1 hour before training.

Protein Bars Benefits:

  • replenish reserves of vitamins and minerals;
  • help burn fat;
  • provide additional protein content;
  • help build muscle;
  • the manifestation of energy;
  • can replace a full meal.

Protein bars are rich in nutrients. The composition includes the necessary vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, and also contains fats in acceptable quantities. The bar helps you avoid muscle catabolism.

Protein bars are very useful for hiking and travel: they are healthy and nutritious, lightweight, and provide a lot of proteins and carbohydrates, and fat from nuts. If the purchased ones are expensive, then you can easily make them yourself: protein powder from sports nutrition, crushed oatmeal, nuts, dried fruits, and egg – make “cutlets” and bake for half an hour in the oven.


As the name suggests, this protein comes from plants. Not every plant contains all the essential amino acids, but there are exceptions!

These plant protein sources have a complete amino acid profile:

  • Quinoa
  • Peas
  • Soy
  • Chia seeds
  • Hemp seeds
  • Chickpea

All of these options are considered complete sources of protein, eliminate the need for animal products, and this is good news for vegetarians, vegans, and anyone else who needs to eliminate dairy from their daily diet.

Protein from plant sources does not contain aromatic and flavoring additives, unlike whey (however, the latter can also be found in its pure form). Certain types of vegan protein have a naturally nutty flavor, and some flavor is specific or almost nonexistent – they are usually added to smoothies, cereals, or other meals for protein enrichment.

Basically, plant protein is very similar to animal protein, with the exception of lower levels of two essential amino acids, methionine and lysine, and higher levels of amino acids such as arginine and glycine. However, this does not mean that a person will not be able to maintain their health by eating exclusively plant-based proteins.

Plant Protein Benefits

Statistics confirm that people who consume more plant-based protein have the following benefits:

1Low incidence of diabetes

2 Fewer cases of heart disease

3Reduced cancer risk

What should you choose?

There are proponents of both plant and whey protein. Both types of protein help nourish the body and keep it functioning properly. Whey protein has long won the love not only of professional athletes but also of people with an active lifestyle. You can find it wherever you can.

Plant-based protein has long not been seen as a viable alternative in the field of fitness and bodybuilding, however, in recent years, several studies have been completed on this issue, which indicates a growing interest in switching to this type of protein.

More and more people are switching to vegetarian diets, whether for health, environmental or ethical reasons.

After learning about some of the benefits of plant-based protein, it may seem like a good idea to cut back on animal protein.

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